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PROF WAQAR HUSSAIN                           
            Human first learned to regularly consume milk in Neolithic Revolution or invention of agriculture around 7000-9000 BC. Now milk is a coveted food for 7 billion people. It is the first food we taste in this world. The world dairy farms produce 710 million tons of milk annually. India is the largest consumer as well as producer of milk 59,210,000 tons; Pakistan is at number second with 20,372,000 tons and China stands at third position with 2,900,000 tons. New Zealand, Australia and European Union’s are the world’s three largest exporters of milk and milk products.  China, Mexico and Japan are the world’s largest importer of milk and milk products.
             Milk is abundantly used food. It is the best single food. It’s exceptional value is due to the fact that it contains essential food ingredients, lactose, lacto protein in colloidal suspension, fat in emulsion, Vitamin A, B, C, D, K, etc. and minerals like calcium, copper, zinc, chlorine, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, iodine, iron, phosphorous, chloride, citrate, etc. ferments (enzymes) as well as antibodies, cells, gases and water. That is why it is termed as complete food. Lord Randolph Henry Spencer Churchill once said on BBC: “There is no finer investment for any community than putting milk into babies. Healthy citizens are the greatest asset any country can have.”  Milk is generally obtained from cows, buffaloes, ewes, goats, camels, etc. Milk from differ species of animal shows a general agreement in physical properties and composition containing essentially the same ingredients which differ only in relative amount.
            Buffalo and cow is both large domesticated animal of bovine subfamily, but differ in their tribe and genus. Buffalo and cows are widely used as source of milk. Cows are female of any bovine animal, especially of domestic, specie (Bos Taurus). While buffalo are oxen, especially of three: Babalus bubalis of Asia, Syncerus caffer of South Africa and Bison bison of North America. Buffalo are normally found in India, Pakistan, China, Brazil, etc. while cows are found in USA, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Finland, Switzerland, Australia, Holland, etc.    
              Top 10 buffalo milk producing countries are India, Pakistan, China, Egypt, Nepal, Iran, Myanmar, Italy, Vietnam and Turkey. And top 10 cow milk producing countries are Finland, Sweden, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Australia and Canada.            

 Buffalo and cow both give milk unquestionable the best food. However, people often questions; which one is the best? So the objective of comparison is to find out which one is more valuable?
            *The first point of comparison is of nutritive value of buffalo milk and cow milk. See the chart below
                                        *Below amounts are per 100 g of milk.

1.          Water
2.          Protein(g)
3.          Fat
4.           Carbohydrate
5.          Energy
6.          Sugar lactose
7.          Saturated FA
8.          Monounsaturated                             FA
9.          Polyunsaturated FA
10.     Cholesterol
11.     Calcium


1.          81.1%
2.          4.5g
3.          8g
4.          4.9g
5.          110 kcal
6.          4.9g
7.          4.2g
8.          1.7g

9.          0.2g
10.     8mg           
11.         195 µg


1.          87.8%
2.          3.2g
3.          3.9g
4.          4.8g
5.          66 kcal
6.          4.8g
7.          2.4g
8.          1.1g

9.          0.1g
10.     14mg
11.     120 µg
           Less water: Buffalo milk has less water content 81.1% than cow milk 87.8%, so it is denser.
           More Protein: Buffalo Milk contains 4.5 g/100g of milk protein and cow milk has 3.2g/100g; thus buffalo milk has 40% more protein.

            More Fat-Buffalo milk has 8g fat while cow milk has 3.9g fat so buffalo milk has 105% more fat that cow milk.
            More carbohydrate: Buffalo milk has 4.9g carbohydrate as compared to cow milk 4.8g so buffalo milk has 2.08% more carbohydrate.
             More energy: Buffalo milk has 110 kcal as compared to cow milk which has 66 kcal. So buffalo milk has 66% more energy.
             More saturated Fatty acids: Buffalo milk has 4.2g and cow milk 2.4g, thus buffalo milk has 75% more saturated fatty acids.
             More monounsaturated Fatty acid; Buffalo milk has 1.7g and cow milk 1.1g, so buffalo milk has 54.5% more monounsaturated acid.
             More polyunsaturated Fatty acid: Buffalo milk has 0.2g and cow 0.1g so buffalo milk has 100% more polyunsaturated Fatty acid than that of cow milk.
               Lower cholesterol level: Buffalo milk has 8mg and cow 14mg, so buffalo milk has 75% less cholesterol.

               More minerals: Buffalo milk has higher percentage of Calcium 92%, Iron 37.7%, phosphorous 118%, magnesium 100% as compare to cow milk.

               Less minerals; Buffalo milk has 25% less sodium and 36.36% less potassium; 42.8% less chloride and less iodine.


      COW MILK


                   More antioxidant: Buffalo milk contains high level of natural antioxidant, tocopherol. Peroxidase activity is normally 2-4 times that of cow’s milk.
                  More Vitamin A:    Buffalo metabolizes all the carotene into Vitamin -A which is then passed on to milk.
                  *The second point of comparison is commercial viability. Buffalo’s milk is considered better for manufacture of fat-based and SNF-based milk products such as butter, ghee, and milk powder. The reason behind this preference is due to lower water content and higher fat value of Buffalo milk.
                   *The third point of comparison is of cosmetic appearance; Buffalo’s milk is whiter than of cow’s which is pale-creamy yellow. Similarly fat of buffalo is white and that of cow is golden yellow.
                   *Fourth point of comparison is of commercial suitability.
                    Better whey protein:     Protein of buffalo milk especially whey protein are more resistant to denaturing due to heat as compared to cow milk. Dried milk products of buffalo’s milk have higher percentage of undenatured proteins. So, dried buffalo milk is preferred over dried cow milk in technology application which demands high level of undenatured protein.
                     Better cheese: Buffalo milk exhibits peculiar textural properties. When chewing and stringing properties are required as in the case of Mozzarella cheese, buffalo milk is technological preferred over cow milk. Recently, in Italy, legislation has been passed to restrict the term   “Mozzarella” only for those products which are exclusively made from buffalo milk.
                  Similarly Paneer  of  India, Pakistan and pickled cheese of the Middle East countries are best made from buffalo milk.
                   Better texture of ghee:  The emulsifying capacity of buffalo milk is better due to higher proportion (50%) of butyric acid present in triglycerides(an organic compound of family ester made from glycerol and higher fatty acids) as compared to only (37%) present in cow milk. It results in higher production of butter and ghee. The high concentration of (9-12%) of high melting triglycerides gives a bigger grain, which imparts a grainy texture to ghee obtained from the buffalo milk.
                    Better preservation: Buffalo milk is less prone to hydrolytic rancidity than cow milk. Hydrolytic rancidity breaks triglycerides into original fatty acid and glycerol. Thus food product becomes sour and stinking due to free acids. Thus due to high peroxidese activity, buffalo milk can be preserved naturally for longer period of time.
                    *The Fifth point of comparison is of health considerations. The presence of higher level of various immunoglobins,  lactoferrin, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase as well as bifidogenic factors render buffalo milk more suitable than cow milk for the preparation of a wide range of special dietary and health foods.
                    Buffalo milk contains more calcium, a better calcium-phosphorous ration (1:80) and less sodium and potassium than in cow milk that makes it better nutritional supplements for infants.
                   The low cholesterol level of buffalo milk makes it and its products more popular among health conscious consumers especially mindful of cardiovascular diseases.

                   Buffalo milk is good for people with eczema, psoriasis, lactose intolerance and irritable bowel syndrome. Buffaloes’ immune system seems to be stronger than that of cows. Buffaloes are not given as many antibiotics as dairy cows and are more resistance to disease. The natural immunity which buffalo possess, definitely, passes to man by drinking its milk.
                  The raw milk of buffalo and cow has many pathogenic microorganisms. Cow is believed to have more in numbers as well as in types. For example:
* Bacteria Bacillus Cereus which produces toxin that cause diarrhea.
* Bacteria Brucella causes undulant fever.
* Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea.
* Coxiella burnetii; microbe causes Q fever, a high grade fever that my last up to 2 weeks.
* E.Coli-causes bloody diarrhea.
* Mycobacterium avium bacteria causes Crohn’s disease also known as inflammatory bowel syndrome.
* Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis.
* Salmonella contamination causes diarrhea and high grade fever.
* Staphy lococcus aureus produce toxin that cause explosive vomiting.
* Mad cow disease, also known as bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE) is a disease which affects nervous systems, and is caused by infectious protein. “Prion”, transmitted by eating infected meat. The infectious prion has not been found in milk from infected cows. So it is not transmitted by drinking milk of infected cows.
              To keep a bay the above diseased, it is advised not to drink raw milk; keep dairy product refrigerated , keep watch on expiry date; do not eat raw dairy products and always use milk after pasteurization. Cows are involved in the controversy of many diseases; cow milk allergy due to milk protein, Parkinson disease, prostate cancer, Crohn’s disease, Hirsch sprung disease, etc.
                Freshly drawn cow’s milk is yellowish white opaque liquid which is slightly acidic to phenolphthalein but alkaline to methyl orange. It is believed to contain sufficient quantity of sulphur which is a tonic for brain so cow’s milk makes a person mentally alert and physically agile. Perhaps that is the reason the western people are more intelligent and active than the inhabitants of India and Pakistan. Sulphur is not only good for brain but also has many other vital effects. Sulphur is the compound which is found in large number of homoeopathic medicines. Sulphur has special healing affect for skin diseases that is why people take bath in many springs containing sulphur as a treatment of skin diseases.
                *The Sixth point of comparison is of buffalo and cow’s habits. If, one closely observers the habits of buffaloes. They use to role in their own dung and mud. On the other hand, cows are clean and well mannered specie. Furthermore, buffaloes walk lazily. One seldom finds them running. Shafiq-ur-Rehman, a famous Urdu writer, has stated in his book: “If buffaloes are moving at a distance, it is very difficult to judge whether they are coming or going.” In sum, buffalo milk make a person mentally dull and physically sluggish life her, It is probably due to high percentage of fat and other nutrients. So laborious is recommended after taking buffalo milk to ward off these ill effects.
                 *The Seventh point of comparison is of use in Hikmat(a medical treatment based on plants, herbs, etc and is the outcome of years of trial and errors and transmitted to the next generation verbally). The Vedic system of medicine recommends the use of cow’s milk. Hakim often gives sex stimulant medicines with an advice to take it along with a suitable amount of cow’s butter. Perhaps, cow milk contains a good quantity of Vitamin –E which is sex stimulant and good for reproductive system. Hakims also have great praise for buffalo milk.
                   *The Eighth  point of comparison is of geographic and demographic consideration; the people of top ten cow milk producers are developed, dynamic and intelligent. Whereas top ten buffalo milk producers are mostly developing, lethargic and dull. Whether these traits have any scientific link with the use of milk or not? This questions demands further investigation.
              *The Ninth point of comparison is of religious importance, the religion knows what an ordinary man can never think of! Cows are mentioned 34 times in the Bible and 4 times in the Quran. The longest surah of the Quran “Al baqra” is named after cow. Cows are venerated in Hinduism. Vedic says, cows are to be treated with the same respect as one’s mother because of milk they provide. “The cow is my mother” Mahabharata. The Hindu abstains from eating beef and the slaughter of cow is considered a heinous sin. In 1960, an individual could serve three months in jail for killing a pedestrian, but one year for injuring cow and life imprisonment for killing a cow. Slaughtering of cow is forbidden by law in several states of India. So cows enjoy religious sanctity.
               *The Tenth comparison is of record of mentions in language and literature as it is also a way to judge the importance of an object by counting the number and assessing the mode of mentioning. Buffalo finds mentions as buffalo chips, buffalo grass, buffalo robe, buffalo horse, buffalo accent, buffalo pox, Punjabi maxim; bhains ka agay been bajana(to play flute in the front of buffalo, meaning similar to English idiom “throwing pearls before a swine”.),another Punjabi adage, muj whaich kay ghori liye,dudh peen to gia, lid chukni pai(a person sold a profitable animal buffalo and bought a luxurious animal horse as a result he lost the benefit of drinking milk instead he had to clean the filth of horse.), Jis ki lathi uski bhains (might is right), Allah mian ki gay (cow of God, meaning very simple person), playing a harp before a buffalo, the buffalo is not as dangerous as everyone makes him out to be( Statistics prove that in the United States more Americans are killed in automobile accidents than are killed by buffalo), “Jessica, you want some buffalo wings? Sorry I don’t eat buffalo”, breath of a buffalo in the winter time, If you enter a goat stable; bleat, if you enter a water buffalo stable; bellow,
   “Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo” is a grammatical valid sentence in English language used as an example of how homonyms and homophones can be used to create complicated linguistic constructs. By using punctuation and synonyms, meanings become clear: “Buffalo-origin bison that other Buffalo bison intimidate, themselves bully Buffalo bison.”Keep in mind Buffalo is an important city in the United States of America and buffalo has other meanings too.
               Cows find mentions as: till the cows come; cow bane, cow bell, cow berry, cow boy, cow girl, cow catcher, cow fish, cow-grass, cow hand cow-heel, cow herd, cow hide, cow itch, cow lick, cow ling, cow man, cow-parsley, cow pat, cow pie, cow poke, cow pox, cow puncher, cow shed, cow shot, cow slip, cow town, cow tree, cow wheat, to have a cow, cow sb into sth, cowed into submission, everyone is nice till the cow get into the garden, why buy a cow if you can get the milk for free, etc.

              Before arriving at final verdict, have a glance of below mentioned table which will help the readers to decide about the preference of buffalo milk or cow milk.
  1. Milk good for adults.
  2. Milk is thick.
  3. Milk is white.
  4. Milk is not easily digestible.
  5. Milk has less cholesterol.
  6. Milk has more fat.
  7. Milk has more calories.
  8. 100 calories are derived for 100 g      buffalo’s milk.
  9. Milk has less water.
  10. Milk has more protein.
  11. Milk has slightly more carbohydrates.
  12. Milk has more saturated fatty acid, mono unsaturated fatty acid and poly unsaturated fatty acid.
  13. Milk has more calcium, iron, phosphorus etc.
  14. Milk has more Vitamin -A.
  15. Probably milk has less sulphur.
  16. Top three producers are India, Pakistan and China.
  17. Milk can be preserved for longer time        naturally.
  18. A good buffalo gives 10 litres milk per day.
  19. Raw milk contains more pathogenic micro organisms.
  20. Milk has lesser iodine.
  21. Milk is good for weight gain.
  22. Milk has less sodium, potassium and           chloride.
  23. Milk has high level of anti oxidants,        tocopherol.
  24. There is no buffalo milk allergy.
  25. Milk is good for people eczema, psoriasis, lactose intolerant people   and      irritable bowel syndrome.
  26. Buffalo ghee is less prone to hydrolytic     rancidity.
  27. Milk has more calcium to phosphorus ratio.
  28. Buffalo are found in hot wet areas.
  29. Buffaloes are mostly found in Asia.
  30. The emulsifying capacity of milk is much       better.
  31. Ghee has good grainy texture.
  32. Milk is less controversial in causing            diseases.
  33. Milk has higher level of various bio protective factors e.g immunoglobins,  lactoferrin, lysozyme,  lactoperoxidase,etc.
  34. Buffalo cheese is better.
  35. Milk is good for heart.
  36. Milk is not good for thyroid.
  37. Both have almost equal citrate contents.
  38. Milk has high per oxidaze activity.
  39. Buffalo has more natural immunity against diseases.
  40. Buffalo in human care are placid and patient so easy to control.


  1. Milk good for infant.
  2. Milk is thin.
  3. Milk is golden yellow.
  4. Milk is very easily digestible.
  5. Milk has more cholesterol.
  6. Milk has less fat.
  7. Milk has fewer calories.
  8. 70 calories are derived for 100 g buffalo’s milk.
  9. Milk has more water.
  10. Milk has less protein.
  11. Milk has slightly less carbohydrates.
  12. Milk has less saturated fatty acid, mono unsaturated fatty acid and poly unsaturated fatty acid.
  13. Milk has less calcium, iron, phosphorus etc.
  14. Milk has fewer Vitamin- A.
  15. Probably milk has more sulphur.
  16. Top three producers are Finland, Sweden and Ireland.
  17. Milk can’t be preserved for longer time naturally.
  18. A good cow gives 20 litres milk per day.
  19. Raw milk contains less pathogenic micro organisms.
  20. Milk has more iodine.
  21. Milk is good for weight loss.
  22. Milk has more sodium, potassium and chloride.
  23. Milk has low level of anti oxidants, tocopherol.
  24. There are incidents of cow milk allergy.
  25. Milk is not good for people eczema, psoriasis, lactose intolerant people and irritable bowel syndrome.
  26. Cow ghee is more prone to hydrolytic rancidity.
  27. Milk has less calcium to phosphorus ratio.
  28. Cows are found in cold wet areas.
  29. Cows are mostly found in West.
  30. The emulsifying capacity of milk is not better.
  31. Ghee has not good grainy texture.
  32. Milk is more controversial in causing diseases.
  33. Milk has lower level of various bio protective factors e.g immunoglobins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase,etc.
  34. Cow cheese is less good.
  35. Milk is not good for heart.
  36. Milk is good for thyroid.
  37. Both have almost equal citrate contents.
  38. Milk has low per oxidaze activity.
  39. Cow has less natural immunity against diseases.
  40. Cows in human care are not so placid and patients so difficult to control.

              There is no mark able difference in the nutritive value and digestibility of milk from buffalo and cow. Buffalo’s milk is a good for healthy bones, dental health, cardiovascular health and weight gain. Cow’s milk is beneficial for healthy bones, dental health, and obesity reduction in children, protection for thyroid and protection of heart.
               No doubts, there is a small difference of preference which definitely exist and can be given to either buffalo milk or cow milk in the light of above mentioned ten points of comparison. However, the final decision is left with the readers!


  1. Very nice research.... applause :)

  2. Thanks for ur valuable comments and love and passion for reading research articles.

  3. Gud effort..

  4. Interesting research Waqar! Thanks so much.

  5. Thanks loads :)

  6. Very interesting and knowledgeable article.
    Wish you all the best sir.

  7. I love milk chocolate. Milk is good for health. thank's for share your views.

  8. I was looking for articles on best milk in India and I came across yours inspiring read. Great post!

  9. I must say this is brilliant blog! I would love to tell you about organic milk compared to local milk.It’s untouched by human, cows are fed on a special diet and not adulterated. I tried the milk, even without sugar it tastes yum.It is the best cow milk.
    i refer you the sites:

  10. will you please substantiate your below referred statements in the article
    Freshly drawn cow’s milk is yellowish white opaque liquid which is slightly acidic to phenolphthalein but alkaline to methyl orange. It is believed to contain sufficient quantity of sulphur which is a tonic for brain so cow’s milk makes a person mentally alert and physically agile. Perhaps that is the reason the western people are more intelligent and active than the inhabitants of India and Pakistan.

  11. Ther yellowish colour of cow milk is because of carotene . and white colour of buffalo milk does not contains carotene. Buffalo could not digest carotene present in their food at all but cow could digest carotene present in their food.... in modern age carotene is added externally to make butter colour yellowish... So CAROTENE is responsible for yellowish colour of MILK.

  12. Thank you very much for exhaustive comparison of cow and buffalo milk. Isn't milk production in Buffalo higher than the cow. So why haven't the Europeans caught on to this aspect of Buffalo milk. Besides in north america homogenized milk fat is controlled and fat is sold separately, fat is valuable and therefore the Buffalo would be more profitable. Just wondering.

  13. ghee price is an lower than one.then it's play a major role in the functioning of the heart, brain and also bone development.

  14. You have to ensure that the oil you get from the wood pressed oilous diseases and the raw material used has been thoroughly cleaned.We all know that losing weight requires fat and calorie burning, something drinking coconut oilcan easily provide.

  15. ghee price play a major role in the functioning of the heart, brain and also bone development.chekku coconut oil is considered to be one of the most versatile natural oils today.

  16. All of the fats and cold pressed oil in mumbai that we eat are composed of molecules called fatty acids. Biochemically, fatty acids are composed of a chain of carbon atoms connected to one another by chemical bonds..You have to ensure that the oil you get from the wood pressed oilous diseases and the raw material used has been thoroughly cleaned.cold press oil machineuses friction and continuous pressure from the screw drives to move and compress the seed material.

  17. Organic marachekku oil in bangalore are produced in remarkable diversity by plants, animals, and other organisms through natural metabolic processes. Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids, steroids and similar chemicals.It comes in a number of varieties, including refined, unrefined, roasted, cheku oil, which have slight differences in their nutritional value and health benefits.Today, it is deemed as one of the healthiest oils, loaded with essential nutrients. ... In Ayurveda,chekku gingelly oilin bangaloreis valued for its medicinal properties. It is said to be good for the skin..

  18. benefits of neem oil has a wide history of use as a folk remedy around the world, and has been used to treat many conditions.

    Good sesame oil in tamil has a strong smell when it is opened. The color should be bright brown or gold.

    All of the fats and what is cold pressed coconut oil that we eat are composed of molecules called fatty acids. Biochemically, fatty acids are composed of a chain of carbon atoms connected to one another by chemical bonds..

  19. Organic ghee is procured from 100% organic grass fed cow milk-butter. The optimum purity makes the organic grass fed ghee ghee the purest form of this dairy staple.
    100% pure Organic grass-fed ghee often gets certified by an authority certifier. For example, Milkio pure organic grass fed ghee is certified by BioGro, New Zealand, the largest and best-known certifier for organic produce and products.
    Although most people link butter with fat and presume the risk of declined heart health, the rich variety of saturated fats in organic ghee can offer a healthy boost to the heart.
    For more info visit: organic ghee

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